Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient found in beer, wine, and liquor. Alcohol is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches. It is a central nervous system depressant that is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine into the bloodstream. A standard drink equals 0.6 ounces of pure ethanol, or 12 ounces of beer; 8 ounces of malt liquor; 5 ounces of wine; or 1.5 ounces (a "shot") of 80-proof distilled spirits or liquor (e.g., gin, rum, vodka, or whiskey)
At low doses, alcohol causes loss of emotional restraint, vivaciousness, feeling of warmth, flushing of skin, and mild impairment of judgment. As blood alcohol levels increase, speech becomes slurred and the intoxicated person begins losing motor control. At higher levels, memory is affected and the person becomes stuporous and unable to be aroused. Coma and death can, rarely, ensue.
Autonomic overactivity: Sweating, Tachycardia, Hypertension, Insomnia, Tremor, and Fever.
Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, Nausea, Vomiting, and Dyspepsia.
Cognitive and perceptual changes: Anxiety, Vivid dreams, Illusions, Hallucinations, and delirium.